MICROBIOME AND GERM-FREE INSIGHTS


Resuscitation Fluid Composition May Improve Sepsis Outcomes

While modern medicine has done little to improve the mortality rates from severe sepsis, modifications in resuscitation fluid composition may prevent disease progression and improve outcomes. Researchers at McMaster University recently demonstrated that altering the concentrations of gluconate and acetate in resuscitation fluid impacts both hepatic cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment in a C57BL/6 mouse model of sepsis. "Resuscitation fluid composition affects hepatic inflammation in a murine...

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Interested in Learning How the Microbiome Impacts Drug Discovery?

Attend the Translational Microbiome Conference in Boston this April to learn how the microbiome is impacting the drug discovery industry. This industry-leading, three-day conference "focuses on the potential for translational interventions in microbiome research and the challenges the industry will need to address to make this space successful." Taconic Biosciences — the only commercial provider of germ-free mice — will sponsor, speak, and conduct a workshop at...

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Microbiome Research Symposia Review: Microbiome and Disease

Adapted from an image by Nathan Schmidt, University of Louisville Taconic Biosciences recently organized two research symposia on the microbiome and disease, with a focus on translational research. Attendees from across pharma, biotech, and academia convened for two days of presentations and discussions on the cutting edge in microbiome science. Advancing Microbiome Research Symposium: Microbiome & Disease, November 3, 2016, Potomac, MD The first symposium was held...

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Colitis Animal Models in IBD Research Webinar Q&A

Dr. Philip Dubé recently presented a webinar on colitis animal models for IBD research. His presentation introduced three major types of colitis models — chemically-induced, genetically engineered spontaneous colitis models, and adoptive transfer models — with examples of specific models from each type reviewed. Due to time constraints, many of the questions submitted during the webinar went unanswered. We present a full Q&A here. Dextran Sulfate Sodium...

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Are Gnotobiotic Isolators Always Necessary?

Housing system design is fundamentally linked to the stability and characteristics of the mouse microbiome - but are gnotobiotic isolators always necessary to prevent compositional changes in microbiota? A new study published by Randi Lundberg, DVM and co-authors from University of Copenhagen and Technical University of Denmark, characterized the gut microbiota of mice housed in individually ventilated cages (IVCs) and compared it to that of mice housed...

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Mouse Model of Alcohol Abuse Shows Microbiome Changes

In one of the few published studies evaluating the role of chronic alcohol exposure and its impact on the microbiome, researchers at University College Cork, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and Teagasc Food Research Centre found marked changes in microbiota in a mouse model of alcohol abuse. After four weeks of exposure to chronic intermittent vaporized ethanol, investigators found a reduction in bacteria alpha diversity...

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Segmented Filamentous Bacteria in Mice

In 2009, Dan Littman's laboratory published a landmark manuscript that greatly influenced how the research community viewed commensal microbes and their impact on the host immune system. Despite the presence of hundreds of species of bacteria in the intestinal tract, Ivanov et al. demonstrated that the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in mice could massively skew the frequency of Th17 cells, a subset of CD4+ T...

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Mitochondrial Enzymes Link A. Parvulum and Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Recent attention has focused on the potential role of the microbiome in Crohn's, with a microbial network involving A. parvulum seemingly indicated in T cell activation and intestinal damage due to reduced mitochondrial H2S detoxification. Identifying Microbial Changes in New-Onset Crohn's Disease Multiple studies have shown that...

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Fecal Microbiota Study Links Parkinson's Disease and the Microbiome

In a recent Cell publication, a team led by Timothy Sampson and Sarkis Mazmanian of Caltech showed that gut microbiota can promote inflammation of neurons and motor deficits in a human α-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Connecting Parkinson's Disease and the Microbiome Emerging data suggest bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, nociception, and autism spectrum disorder1,5,6. Much has been postulated over...

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How is the Gut Microbiome Established?

Research isolating the key factors impacting establishment of an individual gut microbiome has interesting implications for the future of microbiome therapeutics - and translatable mouse model research. Microbiome population diversity is relatively stable throughout the life of a host organism, returning to a durable, individualized baseline after most disruptions. This baseline is established in infancy, through genetic and environmental factors, and appears resistant to changes in diet....

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