Immunology INSIGHTS

Autoimmunity in Humanized Immune System Mice: A Double-edged Sword

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A hyperactive immune system can be a positive or a negative in the disease setting depending on the desired outcome. Autoimmune diseases such as graft-versus-host disease, lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, IPEX, and more are caused by the immune system attacking healthy host tissue. These diseases can be modeled preclinically using humanized immune system (HIS) mice, with varying levels of success. Studying Autoimmune Diseases in NOG Mice...  Read More

Studying Mast Cell-mediated Allergic Disease Using Humanized Immune System Mice

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Humanized immune system (HIS) mice have a variety of applications for studying diseases in which the immune system drives pathogenesis. This includes immuno-oncology, autoimmunity, and a less discussed but also crucial subset of immunologic disorders, allergy. Indeed, Taconic's CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-engrafted NOG-EXL (huNOG-EXL) is a model that supports the key myeloid cell populations that mediate allergic responses in humans. Humanized NOG-EXL mice support key myeloid...  Read More

Comparison Guide: huNOG-EXL, NSG-SGM3 and MISTRG

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Several super immunodeficient models expressing cytokines designed to drive myeloid cell lineage commitment have been generated. The most advanced cytokine transgenic mouse models are the huNOG-EXL, NSG-SGM3 and the MISTRG. This group of models has promise to improve human immune system engraftment in mice, but each one has different features which must be considered when choosing an experimental model. Each model expresses two or more human variants...  Read More

IBD and Immune Checkpoint Modulators

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New research offers insights into the connection between regulatory T cells and ILC3-driven colitis, suggesting opportunities for checkpoint modulation therapies. Researchers at Merck and the University of Bern explored the role of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in innate lymphoid cell 3 (ILC3)-driven colitis. The researchers found that Treg cells inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines which drive ILC3 production of interleukin 22 (IL-22). They identified...  Read More

Key Immunology Mouse Models in History

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While the field of immunology has origins that date back to the 1500s, the field gained significant ground with the expanded use of mouse model systems. Fundamental discoveries elucidated in mouse models over the past 50 years are beginning to yield major breakthrough treatments for the most sinister human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegeneration, and cancer. The immunologist's major professional association, the American Association of Immunology,...  Read More

What's in a Name? Origins of the CIEA NOG mouse®

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The CIEA NOG mouse® is often referred to as an ideal mouse for engraftment of foreign (especially human) cells. The high rates of engraftment make NOG mice a preferred choice for patient-derived xenografts and humanized immune system mice studies. What special properties make the NOG mouse such a great acceptor of foreign cells and tissues? To answer this question, one need only look at the mouse line's...  Read More

Conversion of Immunodeficient Rodent Models to Excluded Flora Health Standard

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Taconic Biosciences is converting production of many immunodeficient models from the Restricted Flora™ (RF™) health standards to the Excluded Flora (EF) health profile as part of continuous quality improvements. The next model identified for conversion to Excluded Flora production is the NCr nude, with a target date for conversion by Dec 31, 2016. To ease your transition, free trials are available through the Smart Select program. We...  Read More

The Dirty Future of Immunology Animal Models

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When discrepancies in immune response arise between animal models and humans, some investigators are quick to question the adequacy of laboratory mice as a proxy for human subjects. Two collaborative studies, published in Nature and Cell Host & Microbe, suggest that animal model microbiome and health standards are key to interpreting these discrepancies - and that mice with more extensive history of pathogen exposure may better model...  Read More

Review: Humanized Mouse Model Research Symposia

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Humanized mouse models are critical tools for basic research, modeling of certain human-specific infectious diseases, efficacy testing of immunotherapy approaches, and safety assessment for large molecule therapeutics. Taconic Biosciences recently hosted the symposium series "Advanced Preclinical Models for Immuno-oncology and Infectious Disease" in several European cities, which focused on the latest research applications of human immune system engrafted mice and the introduction of next generation models. International...  Read More

Scid mutants or Rag2 Knockouts - Which Immunodeficient Model is Best for Your Study?

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Mice with compromised immune systems are invaluable research tools. Starting with the discovery of athymic nude mice in the 1960's, the portfolio of immunodeficient rodents has grown significantly. Although these models are used quite widely, not all researchers understand their intrinsic characteristics and how those characteristics impact experimental outcomes. Learn more about two key immunodeficient models, scid mutants and Rag2 knockouts, and how to choose the most...  Read More

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