A consortium of researchers from Australia and the US (Roediger et al. Cell 2018) recently published the discovery of a novel mouse parvovirus which causes significant clinical illness in immunocompromised mice. This highly infectious virus, called mouse kidney parvovirus (MKPV), causes inclusion body nephropathy (a type of kidney disease) and eventually renal failure in immunodeficient mice. In affected mice, kidneys display anatomical and functional abnormalities including tubular degeneration, necrosis and fibrosis as well as elevated serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Affected mice may also lose weight and become anemic1. MKPV is reported to be widely distributed in North American and Australian laboratory animal facilities (status of other locations is unknown at this time), with IDEXX reporting prevalence of over 15%2. The virus is transmitted via fecal-oral or urinary-oral routes. Immunocompetent mice may be infected with MKPV, but show minimal clinical illness, with some animals displaying moderate nephropathy. Affected nude mice (which lack T cells) are reported to show mild nephropathy. In more severely immunodeficient mice such as Rag1 knockouts, scids or NSG mice, MKPV causes more significant nephropathy and may cause death. Affected animals may experience kidney dysfunction for 4-5 months prior to death1.