MICROBIOME AND GERM-FREE INSIGHTS


Mouse Model of Alcohol Abuse Shows Microbiome Changes

In one of the few published studies evaluating the role of chronic alcohol exposure and its impact on the microbiome, researchers at University College Cork, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and Teagasc Food Research Centre found marked changes in microbiota in a mouse model of alcohol abuse. After four weeks of exposure to chronic intermittent vaporized ethanol, investigators found a reduction in bacteria alpha diversity...

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Segmented Filamentous Bacteria in Mice

In 2009, Dan Littman's laboratory published a landmark manuscript that greatly influenced how the research community viewed commensal microbes and their impact on the host immune system. Despite the presence of hundreds of species of bacteria in the intestinal tract, Ivanov et al. demonstrated that the presence of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) in mice could massively skew the frequency of Th17 cells, a subset of CD4+ T...

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Mitochondrial Enzymes Link A. Parvulum and Crohn's Disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Recent attention has focused on the potential role of the microbiome in Crohn's, with a microbial network involving A. parvulum seemingly indicated in T cell activation and intestinal damage due to reduced mitochondrial H2S detoxification. Identifying Microbial Changes in New-Onset Crohn's Disease Multiple studies have shown that...

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Fecal Microbiota Study Links Parkinson's Disease and the Microbiome

In a recent Cell publication, a team led by Timothy Sampson and Sarkis Mazmanian of Caltech showed that gut microbiota can promote inflammation of neurons and motor deficits in a human α-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Connecting Parkinson's Disease and the Microbiome Emerging data suggest bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, nociception, and autism spectrum disorder1,5,6. Much has been postulated over...

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How is the Gut Microbiome Established?

Research isolating the key factors impacting establishment of an individual gut microbiome has interesting implications for the future of microbiome therapeutics - and translatable mouse model research. Microbiome population diversity is relatively stable throughout the life of a host organism, returning to a durable, individualized baseline after most disruptions. This baseline is established in infancy, through genetic and environmental factors, and appears resistant to changes in diet....

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Microbiome Affects Severity in Mouse Model of Malaria

Malaria is a serious global health hazard, with 214 million new cases worldwide in 2015 according to the World Health Organization. Infection by Plasmodium species can result in a range of disease severity, from asymptomatic infection through severe disease and death. A comparison between mouse models of malaria from competing vendors appears to have identified components of gut microbiota which may impact disease severity, including two genera...

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Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology: An Illustrated Guide (Book Review)

A recently published illustrated manual on gnotobiotic mouse technology could be a great help to developing common standards in the germ-free research community. Chriss J. Vowles, Natalie E. Anderson, and Kathryn A. Eaton of the University of Michigan have produced a thorough reference in Gnotobiotic Mouse Technology: An Illustrated Guide (CRC Press). The Guide features an overview of germ-free research history with sections on sterilization, testing, rederivation,...

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FAQ: Animal Models for Microbiome Research

The microbiome is emerging as an important factor in disease development, progression and prevention. Researchers are trying to harness the microbiome and its role in immune response for therapeutic purposes. Gnotobiotic and germ-free mice will play a pivotal role for researchers. To better serve the research community, it is critical for model vendors to test and report on more microbes of interest and make available a variety...

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Fourth Quarter Microbiome Conferences Roundup

Are you looking for a good scientific microbiome research symposium? Over the next three months, you have six exciting microbiome conferences from which to choose. Symposium Date Location World Congress on Targeting Microbiota 2016 10/17/16 to 10/19/16 Paris, France Gut Microbiome 2016 - An International Perspective 10/21/16 to 10/22/16 Manipal, India Advancing Microbiome Research Symposium: Microbiome & Disease 11/03/16 Potomac, MD International Human Microbiome Congress (IHMC) 11/9/16...

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Ensuring Sterile Feed for Germ-Free Mice

With the increase in institutions that are initiating microbiome studies comes an increase in demands for sterile support materials. Setting up and maintaining isolators to breed and perform studies with germ-free mice is a challenge. There are a number of ways that a biological contaminant can enter an isolator, but the highest risk of contamination may be from improperly sterilized feed. To help us understand better how...

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