hGM-CSF/hIL3 NOG mice engrafted with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) stably develop extensive cell lineages as early as 6 to 8weeks post-injection. Both myeloid and lymphoid lineage cells are present in peripheral blood, bone marrow, thymus and spleen and non-lymphoid tissue including lung and liver. Longer term studies are possible in huNOG-EXL mice, with literature reports of stable engraftment and hematopoiesis for at least 20 weeks post engraftment. While, not all human immune cell types have been exhaustively characterized in these mice, extensive myeloid differentiation including granulocyte differentiation (basophil, neutrophil and mast cells) are evident in blood and tissues.Antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells and macrophages) are also increased in frequency, both in blood and spleen.
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