The TNF-α knockout mouse was developed by Michael Marino in the laboratory of Lloyd J. Old, Director of the LICR-New York Branch in collaboration with the LICR-Melbourne Branch in Australia. The model was created by targeting the Tnf gene in W9.5 ES cells and injecting the targeted cells into blastocysts. The line was backcrossed 7 generations to C57BL/6J. Taconic received stock for the Emerging Models program in 2001. The model was embryo transfer derived. The model is maintained through incrossing of homozygous mice.
Marino MW, Dunn A, Grail D, Inglese M, Noguchi Y, Richards E, Jungbluth A, Wada H, Moore M, Williamson B, Basu S, Old LJ. Characterization of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 94(15):8093-8.
Wada H, Noguchi Y, Marino MW, Dunn AR, Old LJ. T cell functions in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 94(23):12557-61.
Elkon KB, Liu CC, Gall JG, Trevejo J, Marino MW, Abrahamsen KA, Song X, Zhou JL, Old LJ, Crystal RG, Falck-Pedersen E. Tumor necrosis factor alpha plays a central role in immune-mediated clearance of adenoviral vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 94(18):9814-9.
Noguchi Y, Wada H, Marino MW, Old LJ. Regulation of IFN-gamma production in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 1998 (12):3980-8.
Doi TS, Marino MW, Takahashi T, Yoshida T, Sakakura T, Old LJ, Obata Y. Absence of tumor necrosis factor rescues RelA-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 96(6):2994-9.